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Monday, November 16, 2015

'Inflation and Activity – Two Explorations and their Monetary Policy Implications'

Olivier Blanchard, Eugenio Cerutti, and Lawrence Summers (the results are preliminary):

Inflation and Activity – Two Explorations and their Monetary Policy Implications Olivier Blanchard, Eugenio Cerutti, and Lawrence Summers NBER Working Paper No. 21726 November 2015: Introduction: We explore two empirical issues triggered by the Great Financial Crisis. First, in most advanced countries, output remains far below the pre-recession trend, leading researchers to revisit the issue of hysteresis... Second, while inflation has decreased, it has decreased less than was anticipated (an outcome referred to as the “missing disinflation’’), leading researchers to revisit the relation between inflation and activity.
Clearly, if confirmed, either the presence of hysteresis or the deterioration of the relation between inflation and activity would have major implications for monetary policy and for stabilization policy more generally. ...
First, we revisit the hysteresis hypothesis, defined as the hypothesis that recessions may have permanent effects on the level of output relative to trend. ... We find that a high proportion of recessions, about two-thirds, are followed by lower output relative to the pre-recession trend even after the economy has recovered. Perhaps more surprisingly, in about one-half of those cases, the recession is followed not just by lower output, but by lower output growth relative to the pre-recession output trend. That is, as time passes following recessions, the gap between output and projected output on the basis of the pre-recession trend increases. ...
Turning to the Phillips curve relation, we ... find clear evidence that the effect of the unemployment gap on inflation has substantially decreased since the 1970s. Most of the decrease, however, took place before the early 1990s. Since then, the coefficient appears to have been stable, and, in most cases, significant...
Finally, in the last section, we explore the implications of our findings for monetary policy. The findings of the second section have opposite implications for monetary policy... To the extent that recessions are due to the perception or anticipation of lower underlying growth, this implies that estimates of potential output, based on the assumption of an unchanged underlying trend, may be too optimistic, and lead to too strong a policy response to movements in output. However, to the extent that recessions have hysteresis or super-hysteresis effects, then the cost of allowing downward movements in output in response to shifts in demand increases implies that a stronger response to output gaps is desirable.
The findings of the third section yield less dramatic conclusions. To the extent that the coefficient on the unemployment gap, while small, remains significant, the implication is that, within an inflation targeting framework, the interest rate rule should put more weight on the output gap relative to inflation. ...

    Posted by on Monday, November 16, 2015 at 11:31 AM in Academic Papers, Economics, Monetary Policy, Productivity | Permalink  Comments (47)


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