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Friday, June 30, 2006

Manufacturing Optimism

This article from The Economist says to forget all the doom and gloom you hear about manufacturing, it's doing fine:

Lean and unseen, The Economist: ...General Motors (GM) ... announced this week that 35,000 employees—nearly a third of its hourly paid workforce—have accepted the company's incentives to retire early... They are part of an overhaul that GM says will lower its annual fixed costs by $5 billion... Delphi, a bankrupt car-parts maker that used to be part of GM, announced that 12,600 of its workers have also agreed to accept early retirement.

These huge cuts in ... the heart of American manufacturing have fed a popular belief that anyone who makes things in the United States is struggling against an onslaught of foreign competition. Whether American firms are building plants overseas ... to exploit cheap labour, or closing down factories because they cannot compete any more, the widespread assumption is that the country's entire industrial base is being “hollowed out”...

But someone forgot to tell American manufacturers the bad news. Most of them have enjoyed roaring success of late. Net profits have risen by nearly 9% a year since the recession in 2001 and productivity has been growing even more rapidly than is usual during economic expansions. ...

Capital equipment and durable goods-makers such as Caterpillar, General Electric, an industrial conglomerate, and Boeing, an aerospace giant, have always been the strongest bits of America's manufacturing base. Their position is the most secure ... because there is so much knowledge embedded in what they make. Even when a company such as Boeing stumbles over its efficiency, as it did a few years ago, its intellectual property gives it room to recover. These days, however, American manufacturers of all sorts—not just the big durable-goods makers—are quickly improving their efficiency. ...

Manufacturers were already outpacing their rivals in rich countries during 1995 to 2000, when their productivity was growing by 4.0% a year. After 2000, the country's metal-bashers somehow managed to raise their productivity growth by another notch, to 5.1% a year, according to the Bureau of Labour Statistics. No serious economist thinks that America can maintain such a torrid rate of productivity growth...; indeed, the pace has already eased in the past year or two. ...

Until recently, it was hard to judge whether America's manufacturers might eventually lose a step once the effects of the 1990s information-technology boom tailed off. Research by Dale Jorgenson of Harvard University and Kevin Stiroh of the New York Federal Reserve Bank showed that IT drove much of America's productivity burst between 1995 and 2000. In a new paper, Messrs Jorgenson and Stiroh, along with Mun Ho of Resources for the Future, a think-tank, have compared the late 1990s with the productivity growth of the past five years. Not only has productivity growth accelerated further—by another 0.7% a year, to 3.2%—but the forces behind it also appear to have become more broadly based.

The economists looked at the entire private sector, not just manufacturing, and suggested that there could be several explanations... Because American firms are finding myriad ways to raise productivity, and are not merely riding one wave of innovation from the IT boom, the economists think that productivity growth will settle at a rate above what America achieved in the two decades before 1995. Over the next decade, they expect private businesses as a whole to boost productivity by 2.6% a year. That would be good news. Manufacturers, which are boosting productivity even more rapidly than the rest of the economy, should do even better. ...

But all is not rosy. This is also from The Economist:

The rich, the poor and the growing gap between them: But after 2000 something changed. The pace of productivity growth has been rising again, but ... [a]fter you adjust for inflation, the wages of the typical American worker ... have risen less than 1% since 2000. In the previous five years, they rose over 6%. If you take into account the value of employee benefits, such as health care, the contrast is a little less stark. But, whatever the measure, it seems clear that only the most skilled workers have seen their pay packets swell much in the current economic expansion. The fruits of productivity gains have been skewed towards the highest earners, and towards companies, whose profits have reached record levels as a share of GDP.

Even in a country that tolerates inequality, ... most Americans are unhappy about the economy. According to the latest Gallup survey, fewer than four out of ten think it is in “excellent” or “good” shape, compared with almost seven out of ten when George Bush took office.

    Posted by on Friday, June 30, 2006 at 03:29 AM in Economics, Income Distribution, International Trade, Technology | Permalink  TrackBack (1)  Comments (17)


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