Tribalism, Biology, and Macroeconomics: ...Pew has a new report about changing views on evolution. The big takeaway is that a plurality of self-identified Republicans now believe that no evolution whatsoever has taken place since the day of creation... The move is big: an 11-point decline since 2009. ... Democrats are slightly more likely to believe in evolution than they were four years ago.
So what happened after 2009 that might be driving Republican views? The answer is obvious, of course: the election of a Democratic president
Wait — is the theory of evolution somehow related to Obama administration policy? Not that I’m aware of... The point, instead, is that Republicans are being driven to identify in all ways with their tribe — and the tribal belief system is dominated by anti-science fundamentalists. For some time now it has been impossible to be a good Republicans while believing in the reality of climate change; now it’s impossible to be a good Republican while believing in evolution.
And of course the same thing is happening in economics. As recently as 2004, the Economic Report of the President (pdf) of a Republican administration could espouse a strongly Keynesian view..., the report — presumably written by Greg Mankiw — used the “s-word”, calling for “short-term stimulus”.
Given that intellectual framework, the reemergence of a 30s-type economic situation ... should have made many Republicans more Keynesian than before. Instead, at just the moment that demand-side economics became obviously critical, we saw Republicans — the rank and file, of course, but economists as well — declare their fealty to various forms of supply-side economics, whether Austrian or Lafferian or both. ...
And look, this has to be about tribalism. All the evidence ... has pointed in a Keynesian direction; but Keynes-hatred (and hatred of other economists whose names begin with K) has become a tribal marker, part of what you have to say to be a good Republican.
Before the Great Recession, macroeconomists seemed to be converging to a single intellectual framework. In Olivier Blanchard's famous words:
after the explosion (in both the positive and negative meaning of the word) of the field in the 1970s, there has been enormous progress and substantial convergence. For a while - too long a while - the field looked like a battlefield. Researchers split in different directions, mostly ignoring each other, or else engaging in bitter fights and controversies. Over time however, largely because facts have a way of not going away, a largely shared vision both of fluctuations and of methodology has emerged. Not everything is fine. Like all revolutions, this one has come with the destruction of some knowledge, and suffers from extremism, herding, and fashion. But none of this is deadly. The state of macro is good.
The recession revealed that the "extremism, herding, and fashion" is much worse than many of us realized, and the rifts that have reemerged and are as strong as ever. What it didn't reveal is how to move beyond this problem. I thought evidence would matter more than it does, but somehow we seem to have lost the ability to distinguish between competing theoretical structures based upon econometric evidence (if we ever had it). The state of macro is not good, and the path to improvement is hard to see, but it must involve a shared agreement over the evidence based means through which the profession on both sides of these debates can embrace or reject particular theoretrical models.