Here are the conclusions to Regret and economic decision-making:
Conclusions We are clearly a long way from fully understanding how people behave in dynamic contexts. But our experimental data and that of earlier studies (Lohrenz 2007) suggest that regret is a part of the decision process and should not be overlooked. From a theoretical perspective, our work shows that regret aversion and counterfactual thinking make subtle predictions about behaviour in settings where past events serve as benchmarks. They are most vividly illustrated in the investment context.
Our theoretical findings show that if regret is anticipated, investors may keep their hands off risky investments, such as stocks, and not enter the market in the first place. Thus, anticipated regret aversion acts like a surrogate for higher risk aversion.
In contrast, once people have invested, they become very attached to their investment. Moreover, the better past performance was, the higher their commitment, because losses loom larger. This leads the investor to ‘gamble for resurrection’. In our experimental data, we very often observe exactly this pattern.
This dichotomy between ex ante and ex post risk appetites can be harmful for investors. It leads investors and businesses to escalate their commitment because of the sunk costs in their investments. For example, many investors missed out on the 2009 stock market rally while buckling down in the crash in 2007/2008, reluctant to sell early. Similarly, people who quit their jobs and invested their savings into their own business, often cannot with a cold, clear eye cut their losses and admit their business has failed.
Therefore, a better understanding of what motivates people to save and invest could enable us to help them avoid such mistakes, e.g. through educating people to set up clear budgets a priori or to impose a drop dead level for their losses. Such simple measures may help mitigate the effects of harmful emotional attachment and support individuals in making better decisions.
[This ("once people have invested, they become very attached to their investment" and cannot admit failure) includes investment in economic models and research (see previous post).]